These created a kind of new feudalism, building towers and castles throughout the city and the land.
These fiefs evolved into truly independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682.
After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545.
In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it.
During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house.
Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia.
It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square.
It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world.